Title : THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAG E
TEACHING METHOD IN TEACHING ENGLISH FOR
ENGLISH FOR YOUNG LEARNER
Name : Maritsa Mir’atun Azizah Anggawasita
NIM : 1001067010
University : University of Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka : Faculty of Teaching and Education, English Program
A. The Background Of the Research
English is an international language. A lot of country use english as a first language. To develop communication in the world, everyone has to learn an international language and English is well known as one of the international language. Nababan said that:
“Bahasa inggris dipakai juga di antara bangsa-bangsa yang bukan penutur asli bahasa itu, umpamanya perhimpunan ASEAN, sehingga ia mempunyai satu fungsi yang disebut bahasa international.”
In Indonesia, English as a target language in many schools around the world including Indonesia. Harmer said “Probably the greatest number of language students in the world do it because it is on the student curriculum whether they like it or not!” According Harmer statement that student learn the language because it has been stated in curriculum. So that English as a target language is important to be mastered by the students.
From this situation, the students have problem in learning English, because English is different from bahasa indonesia. Learning English is learning language outside of students’ mother tongue. Student will find difficulties in learning it, especially students who come from low socioeconomic background.
Education in Indonesia is relatively less consistent because there are often found problems that have been defined curriculum changes, it can also lead education in our country becomes less effective. Therefore, Indonesia is also still a lot of people who abandoned their education and it is very important in human life because education has many benefits such as humans can develop, making human smart and successful and so on.
Education should be given an early age in order to create balance in science achievement. In Indonesia are still many children who do not get a decent education, the government should pay more attention to this problems because children are required to get an education, especially compulsory education of nine years and this paper will discuss on how effective teaching for young learner and what are the appropriate methods in young learner.
Learning and teaching for the young learner is critical, especially learning a foreign language is English because English is the international language in the present century, the language can be used in any country. As teachers, it is better if we teach the second language for young learner, because the levels of the memory of children are higher than adult levels of memory. Therefore, learning should be given to early childhood. In teaching for the young learner, often the problems that mainly arise from the child's own self. There are problems in the teaching of foreign languages to young learner, how to solve the problem? whether it is an effective solution?. Here will be explained the role, and effectiveness of the solution CLT method in teaching English for young learner. In teaching foreign languages to young learner, there are many methods that can be used, but here we will discuss one method is considered effective enough to teach children in learning foreign languages, especially English, teaching methods for teaching a second language emphasizes the importance of interactive capabilities students to express their own ideas in the target language and this method also requires the child to be communicative both within the classroom and in their daily activities. The goal is that the length and complexity of the exchange, and delivery of self-confidence, language skills will grow with the students. An expert teacher will provide context so that the interaction of real and meaningful class but with the support needed to help students to produce the target language. We need to consider that producing language is a skill and when we learn the skills we practice in an improvised setting. CLT is a main stream of teaching English, which is aimed at cultivating students’ ability of English communication in different situations. However, there are also some difficulties in using CLT in Asia because it was developed in the western countries, and it includes lots of characteristics in the western culture, like individualism, creativity, self-expression, social interaction. Therefore, many researchers have indicated that it is better to use CLT in ESL classrooms, rather than EFL classrooms in Asia. Communication ability is the essential goal in language learning, therefore, Language is not simply a tool for achieving specific transactional goals, it is also a means of self-expression. The communicative approach claims that learning a foreign language should not be focused on language structures (grammar and vocabulary), but also on the communicative functions that the language performs.
CLT is not like the audio lingual method, which is based on repetition and drills; on the contrary, it uses the way to leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise, which will change according to the students’ reactions and responses. The real-life situation change everyday therefore, the students’ learning motivation comes from their desire to communicate in the ways and topics which they are interested in. CLT has many advantages for example make the children become more practical in communication and also the basic responsibility is to consider and respond to the needs of our students, so if a book is not enough we need to use the following steps: select, adapt, resist and complete. In addition, because every class we teach has its own characteristics and needs, CLT will vary each time we use it. In the CLT there are some activities that are suitable for children Learning to play the role of Interviews, information gaps, games, language exchanges, couples Survey, employment, Learning by teaching. However, not all programs that use the communicative approach to language that would restrict their activities solely to these. Some courses will have the students take occasional grammar quizzes, or prepare at home using a non-communicative practice.
In brief, communicative approach in language teaching starts from the theory of language as a communication language teaching aim is to develop what referred to as "communicative competence." Hymes coined this term in order to contrast the views of Chomsky's theory of language and communicative competence. CLT is a method that has been deemed effective for teaching children, so I chose CLT as the material of this paper.
B. Identification of The Research
Based on the introduction of study mention above, the identification of the problem of the research are:
1. What is EYL exactly?
2. What are the characters EYL?
3. What is meant by CLT?
4. What are the advantages of CLT?
5. How CLT implemented to improve English young learner?
C. The Scope of The Research
The writer scope the study about, how to increase learning English for the young learner, by using CLT method for the class English course.
In this paper, the writer focused to study about the effectiveness of using CLT method for teaching English for young learner, apply in teaching learning activity to increase student’s learning achievement?
D. The Statement of The problem
Based on the important of this research and the effort for increasing the young learner student’s learning achievement, to increase their learning achievement as many as possible, the writer would like to formulate the problem in this paper as follow :
Is the using of CLT method effective toward student’s learning achievement of English?
E. The Objective of The Research
Based on the reason above, through this research the writer wants to prove that the using CLT method is effective for teaching English for young learner.
For the majority of language teachers, the most important need is a practical framework for exploiting what can be observed of peoples day-to-day uses of language, so in CLT there is strategy to make the students or young learner using language effectively and make students communicative in learning language especially English language.
F. The Significance of The Research
The writer hopes that be result of the study will be useful :
a. For the Student
1. The students are able to increase their learning achievement.
2. By applying CLT method in teaching learning activity, hopes it can dig the student’s interest and communicative in English because “Many proponents of CLT have advocated the use of “authentic,” “from-life” materials in classroom. These might include language-based Realia, such as signs, magazines, advertisement and newspapers, or graphic and visual sources around which communicative activities can be built, such as maps, pictures, symbols, graphs and charts. Different kinds of objects can be used to support communicative exercise, such as a plastic model to assemble from directions”.
3. Students will be interested and attractive in learning English.
b. For the Teacher
1. The teacher can motivate the student to communicative when they study in the classroom and everywhere.
2. Learning English by using Realia is interactive and communicative.
3. It might for student working together in pairs or groups to solve problem.
c. For the Institution
For the institution, sometimes students come to our institutions from a different company, school, or country from our own. With using Realia can help students in general to develop their learning achievement, so the institution (course or school) will get the prestige among the education institution.
Students or EYL from inside or outside your own institution
The shorts of things we could do well to know at the organizational level, whether students come from inside or outside our institution, are:
· Whether the course is described or advertised anywhere and, if so, how
· Whether any reports exist on past course and whether any examples of past student work are available
· Who is paying for the students to attend and whether attendance is voluntary or compulsory
· How the students are selected
A. The Definition of CLT method and EYL
1. Definition of CLT Method
In teaching English to Eyl, a teacher should choose what is a good method to Eyl, but here we are more likely to use the CLT method, because it was considered to be effective in teaching Eyl.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is a language teaching method is an extension of previous methods such as method of Situational Language Teaching and Audio Lingual method. One of the main characteristics of CLT is a combination of aspects of language are functionally and structurally. Structurally, CLT emphasis on grammar or grammar systems, while emphasizing the use of functional language.
CLT also stresses on the situation, for example in a situation of how a speech is spoken. In the CLT that there are various language skills (integrated skills) which includes the ability to reading, writing, listening, speaking, vocabulary, and grammar. So, through this CLT learners are expected to master a foreign language or language skilled, not only write but also speak and of course with proper grammar. CLT method is the most Suitable and effective method for teaching Eyl.
As for some purpose of CLT include:
¨ Students will learn to use language as a means to express something.
¨ Students will use language as a tool to express their opinions and judgments.
¨ Students will learn to express the functions that are most appropriate to communicate.
CLT uses almost every activity that involves the learner in an authentic communication.
· Activities of functional communication
· Activities that aim to develop the ability (skill) and the function of particular language, but it involves communication.
· Activities of social interaction For example, conversations and discussions, dialogues and role-playing (role play).
In CLT (Littlewood 1984) stated “language learning is also a natural response to communicative needs (productive and/or receptive). Therefore, we would try to ensure that learners are always aware of the communicative value of what they are learning. For example, we should help them to relate the language to the social context in which it is spoken; we should create communicative contexts in the classroom; learner should be helped to use the language for expressing their own personal needs and their own personality; and when possible, we should arrange contacts with native speakers”.
2. Definition of EYL
The language used by all human beings on this earth. what language to use? language is used as the most effective means. Language is introduced naturally from birth, and how to teach a foreign language or second language to children? children under the age of six years cannot be forced to speak a foreign language as their mother tongue still apply, it is better if we teach it at the age of seven years and above and it is called EYL.
When we teach EYL, there are many ways to be performed, because the EYL cannot understand every word recited by the teacher and we as teachers must be careful in the use of words and sentences. As teachers we must also understand the ability, willingness and aptitude of the participants EYL, so they can quickly appreciate us. As a teacher in the teaching of EYL, we should be able to recognize the figure of EYL itself.
B. Conceptual Framework
The definitions of CLT method above, the writer summarizes that in the CLT there are some activities that are suitable for children Learning to play the role of Interviews, information gaps, games, language exchanges, couples Survey, employment, Learning by teaching. And it can make student more easily to learn a foreign language, especially English language. Communicative language teaching appeared at a time when language teaching in many parts of the world was ready for a paradigm shift. At the level of language theory, Communicative Language Teaching has a rich, if somewhat eclectic, theoretical base. Some characteristics of the communicative view of language follow.
1. Language is a system for the expression of meaning.
2. The primary function of language is for interaction and communication.
3. Structure language reflects the functional and communicative uses.
4. The main units of a language is not only the grammatical features and structural, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.
Based on the statements about EYL above, the writer get the summarize that children or young learner are required to get an education, especially compulsory education of nine years but children under the age of six years cannot be forced to speak a foreign language as their mother tongue still apply, it is better if we teach it at the age of seven years and above and it is called EYL.
Based on the statements of CLT definition and EYL definition, the writer gets the conclusion that CLT is a main stream of teaching English, which is aimed at cultivating students’ ability of English communication in different situations and make the children become more practical in communication and also the basic responsibility is to consider and respond to the needs of our students, so if a book is not enough we need to use the following steps: select, adapt, resist and complete. In addition, because every class we teach has its own characteristics and needs, CLT will vary each time we use it. In the CLT there are some activities that are suitable for children Learning to play the role of Interviews, information gaps, games, language exchanges, couples Survey, employment, Learning by teaching. Now that the initial wave of enthusiasm has passed, however, several claims of CLT are looking more critically. Application of the communicative approach raises important issues for teacher training. Materials development, and testing 'and evaluation questions have been raised. CLT is a method that has been deemed effective for teaching children or EYL and the most emphasize in CLT is communicative, there are two types of communications:
· Nonverbal Communication
All the cues, gestures, facial expressions, spatial relation and attitude. Nonverbal communication differs from verbal communication in fundamental ways. For one thing, it is less structured, so it is more difficult to study.
· Verbal Communication
Verbal communication consist of words arranged in meaningful patterns.
1. Time and Location of the Research
The research will be held at English Course for young learner “Shines Lingua” BSD Tangerang Selatan.
2. Population and Sample
§ Population: All English young learner the 3-4 grade
§ Sample : Ten students of students from elementary school 3-4 grade
3. The Method of the Research
The research uses qualitative method especially survey study. The writer would like to explain the effect of two variables. They are variable X (CLT method) and variable Y (English for young learner).
In this paper, the writer tries to find out effectiveness of using CLT method in teaching English for young learner.
4. The Instrument of the Research
For research instrument the writer use observation an interview to the teacher of the school. The research will be done at the Shines Lingua English course for young learner.
To obtain the data, the writer will give a pre-test to the students such as role play test in sample of experiment class. After that, the writer will get the first data score of experiment class. Than the writer will use the treatment “Realia” to the experiment class, minimal the writer will use the treatment six times. After the writer finish the treatment, the writer will give the class a role play and conversation post-test to the experiment class. Absolutely, the post-test have to similar quality as pre-test. In brief, the writer will get the result of the last score of experiment class and the writer will know there is any difference or not in two data of experiment class which have get the treatment.
- The Technique of Data Analysis
Based on the research method that will be carried out in experiment research methodology, so the writer will analysis the data by using formula that explain by Sudjana, the null hypothesis will be tested against the conventional level of p = 0.05.
t = X1 - µo
s / n
Keterangan lambang :
X1 = rerata skor dari sample penelitian
n = banyaknya/jumlah anggota sample penelitian
µo = rerata skor populasi (sebelum adanya perlakuan)
s = simpangan baku dari sample penelitian
t = nilai yang dicari
- The Procedures of Research
The procedures are used in doing the study as follows:
a) Asking permission from the headmaster of Shines Lingua Course
b) Determine the sample of experiment class.
c) Preparing the test to measure result of study as effect treatment for experiment class.
d) Giving the pre-test to measure the competence of the experiment class.
e) Preparing the program “Role Play” (the treatment).
f) Doing the treatment for experiment class minimum six times treatment and seven times test.
g) Giving the post-test for experiment class.
h) Notice and measured the result of study.
i) Analyzing the data.
j) Making a conclusion of the research.
k) Making a report of the result of the research.
 P.W.J Nababan, Sosiolinguistik suatu pengantar, PT Gramedia 1991, p.40.
 Jeremy Harmer, 1991. The Practice of English Language Teaching, New York : Longman. p.1.
 Ian Tudor. 2001. The Dynamics of the Language Classroom, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. P.65
 Michael McCarthy and Ronald Carter. 1994. Language as Discourse: Perspective for Language Teaching, London: Longman Group UK Limited. P. 3
 Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers , 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. P.170
 Tessa Woodward. 2001. Planning Lesson and course, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. P. 16-17
 William T. Littlewood, 1984, Foreign and Second Language Learning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 97
 Yuliana Ss dan Dra. Julia Eka Rini Mpd. 2002. Introduction to Communication. Jakarta: PT Grasindo Jl. Palmerah Selatan 22-28. P. 4-5
 Sudjana, Metode Statistika, (Bandung : PT. Tarsito Bandung, 1994)